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Wednesday, June 10, 2009

Prayers to Lord Ramacandra in The Javanese Yogisvara Ramayana


Lord Rama killed Vali and Dasamukha or Ravana
Relief panel of Prambanan

Devas (gods of celestial realm), siddhas (accomplished mystic beings with supernatural power), and rishis (revered sages) were offered their prayer to Lord Ramacandra in Yogisvara Ramayana or Javanese Ramayana. The language used here was archaic Javanese called Kawi, the language of the poets (Kavi). Yogisvara Ramayana might be the oldest of all Itihasa ever translated to Javanese Kawi language. You can see many Sanskrit words still used in these Ramayana’s slokas. This translation of Srimad Ramayana was considered by many scholars as the most beautiful among all Javanese ancient Hindu literary works. As I said in previous posts, these Ramayana truly presenting Vaishnavite tenets by establishing the supremacy of Lord Vishnu in His Form as Lord Ramacandra.

Na ta prakara ni awakta bhineda-bheda,
kintu pwa tan hana palenan ika awakta.

Tunggal kitekana penuh rikanang triloka,
atma nikang dadi cara-acara ucca-nicca.

“Lord, You have assumed these various forms, but actually They were non-different from Your very Self. You are the sole shelter of the three worlds; You are the life and soul of everything, moving and non moving, the highest and the lowest.”

Tatan dadi ng dadi kabeh yadiyat tayatah,
apan kitekana ta jiwa kiteka sangkan.

Brahmadi ning sakalabhuta trenanta towi,
tuntuni jiwita nika cetanannya.

“There is no creation without You. Since You are the very cause and life of everything. You are the origin of the highest Brahma and all other beings, even the tip of a blade of grass. That is You, the supreme consciousness of all living beings.”

Anghing samangkana hidep mami he mahatma,
gambhira-bhara ta awakta atita-suksma.

De sang maharishi maha simpen ika awakta,
sang sipta matra pangujar mami mantra-matra.

“Our mind only could grasp You that far O Great Self. Your divine qualities are very deep and fathomless. You are subtler than the subtlest. Even for the great rishis, You are remain a deep secret. Whatever we could say were just a few words full of limitation and nothing more than a little bit mantras to glorify Your Self.”

Sangke iweh nika awakta acintyagamya,
sangksepa sang rishi n usi tang ujar masimpen.

Yawat mahardhika mahabala maprabhawa
tawat bhatara purusottama ling maharishi.

“Since Your Divine Form is inconceivable, all rishis cannot speak anything more about You. As the limit of the unlimited independence, unlimited power, and unlimited prowess, such the limitless nature of Your Self, The Supreme Person. Thus speak all rishis in one voice.”

Ndan don ikojara ni tattwa bhatara tan len,
swasta nikang bhuwana durjana ya dahanya.

Sang sadhu mangguhakena ng suka tar pakala,
anghing basantatilakadi sekar makala.

“Thus we pour our heart only to reveal Your Truth. So the whole world may gain all goodness and the wicked will vanish. Let all holy personages become ever blissful as fully blossoming flowers, as the rain of jewel in the autumn.”

Na ta ujar rishi kabeh mangastuti humung mwang
sura siddha carana mangunyaken jaya jaya.

Utkata puspawarsa sumawur lawan jenu marum
ring gaganantarala i ruhur nirang Raghusuta.

“Thus all rishis glorify and worship The Lord. All devas, siddhas, caranas, etc. in thunderous voices proclaim all victory (jaya jaya) to the Son of Raghu Dynasty (Lord Ramacandra). The rain of flowers and fragrant powder were showering from the sky and outer space.”


This Ramayana was the masterpiece of literary work of Central Java Mataram civilization and the Trinatha temple of Prambanan (Parambrahman) was the masterpiece of sacred architectural work. Both were constructed under the patronage of pious Javanese Hindu King, probably Raka i Pikatan and continued by his descendant, Raka i Kayuwangi (Sri Maharaja Sajjanotsavottungadeva or Dyah Lokapala (856 – 886 ce). The acts of Ramayana were sculpted on Prambanan temple's wall.



After the reign of Raka i Wawa – Sri Vijayalokanathottunga (924 – 929 ce), the capital of Javanese Hindu Kingdom and the centre of civilization was removed to East Java from Central Java. This was the beginning of the reign of Ishanavansa established by mPu Sindok or Sri Maharaja Ishanottungadeva, the heir of Central Java’s Sanjayavansha. The growing power of Srivijaya in Sumatra and natural disasters supposed to be the cause of this resettlement of Javanese Hindu Kingdom. Srivijaya was the greatest kingdom at that time, with powerful maritime domination in South East Asia region. Even the name Suvarnabhumi, the greater India, land of golden lustre became the sole name of Sumatra under Srivijaya.

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