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Tuesday, June 30, 2009

The Achyuta Gotra of Nusantara

Person, who takes initiation of Vaishnava mantras (by accepting Prapatthi-marga with Pancasamskara-diksha) or ordination in Vaishnavite orders and takes Supreme Lord Vishnu as his beloved Deity, entered a brotherhood or family linage (gotra) termed Achyuta Gotra, descendant of The Infallible One.

His Revered Holiness The 45th Alakkhiya Singhar (Throne-holder and Pontiff) of Ahobhila Math bestowed Vaishnavite initiation to these devotees

The noble family and fraternity of Surenderred Souls, The Prapannas.

After accepting the divine sacrament of five-fold Vaishnavite practices as recommended in The Vedas and Vaishnava-agamas, he was not belong to any caste or varna; Brahmins, Ksatriyas, Vaisyas, Sudras, or outcastes. He came to take ekanta dasyatva – exclusive servitor-ship and honored as saranagata or prapanna – a surrendered companion of The Lord’s own family. He wouldn’t identified himself with his blood-relationship based mundane family linage any more. He takes a broader, universal fraternity of all Lord Vishnu’s servants or the Bhagavatas and Vaishnavas. In Nusantara, this gotra also called Hari-vansha or Hariwangsa.

The Hariwangsas in the true sense were identified not according to their blood-tie-relationship, but based on their ability to continue the teachings and practices of their ancestor. Some family lineages who traced their origin in East Java Kadiri’s nobilities, commonly accepted as Hariwangsa. Their descendants were still living in Bali today, with very complicated historical backgrounds. We have no other source to determine their true relations than the Babads (Family Chronicles, but full of what we think as mythological stories) and some official inscriptions, issued by previous generations. (Some were written on chopper tablets but many more on just palm-leaf manuscript, easily damaged by weather, age, etc.)

You may still remember the Markandeya Rishi of Java who came to Bali as the founder of Vaishnavite Brahmin lineage of Bali and established the civilized society. The Chronicles of Markandeya Rishi’s lineage, the Bhujanga Vaishnava Brahminical order, was begun with invocation to The Lord.
Om namah devaya, panamaskaraning hulun i bhatara hyang mami. Sadnya paduka bhatara wishnu, sira anugrahaning bhukti mwang mukti, siddha saprayojana, nitya pratistheng urddha siwadwara sembahen. Iti tattwanira ida bhujangga waishnawa haneng bali pulina, nguni kamimitanira saking jawa dwipa mandala, tumurun mareng bali dwipa mandala.
Om namah devaya, I’m offering my most respectful obeisance unto my Glorious Lord. No other than that most worshipable Lord Vishnu, who bestows all bhukti (sensual pleasures) and mukti (the liberation), attained as our highest ultimate goal, continuously worshiped and enthroned eternally on the crown of our head. This is the truth about how the revered Bhujanga Vaishnavas exist in the Island of Bali. On the past, their origin was from Java and then descended to Bali.”

Thus, the Bhujanga Vaishnava lineage of Bali was an Achyuta Gotra who practices Vedic brahminical duties and performed the Vaishnavite Tantric or Agamic sadhanas (spiritual disciplines) and simultaneously also protects the continuation the disciplic succession. Though today it is difficult to differentiate them from other Balinese priestly orders (or sects), but by observing and listening to their prayers we will find many Vaishnavite formulas. If today they might be became like the Smarta Brahmins of India, at least their Istha-deva is Lord Sriman Narayana. Such changes were not uncommon. As an example, some Vadama Smartas of South India, by influence of Sri Ramanuja’s preaching work, have become Vaishnavite Iyengar Brahmins, so did the Vaishnava Brahmins of Bali. Some have accepted other sect’s sadhanas by their long association with them. But many exclusive Vaishnavite mantras and sadhanas still exist in their community.

The statue of Gajamada's humble monument. Unfit for such a great person

Gajamada, the greatest personage, legendary prime minister, and may be the most powerful personality ever, who unified the whole Nusantara for the first time under one flag of Bilvatikta (Majapahit). Verily, he was the person who became the first founder of our Nation, which now called Indonesia. The Gajamada inscription told us that he was part of Acyuta Gotra. That means he took pancasamskara diksha or came from the family whose ancestors already take Vaishnava-pancasamskara-diksha (tusning Waisnawakula sira Dwirada Mada wangsa). Waisnawakula or Vaishnava-kula has the same meaning with Acyuta Gotra or Hariwangsa, and Dwirada was considered as Gajamada’s actual name (Gajamada means a mad elephant, indicating his powerful prowess, as strong as a mad elephant on the battle).

The classical poems of Sundayana, described the departure of Gajamada. “After the wall of his official abode as a prime minister was broken apart (accepted as the sign of his time to leaves mundane life and the end of his official duty to the kingdom), the revered one applied his special attire. Wearing a set of white cloth, embroidered with gringsing (golden leafs) motifs and the belt of atma-raksi (used by a high priest). His brahminical thread (yajnopavita, sign of an ordained brahmin) shined on his shoulder and chest. He entered deep meditation, hold a mala (rosary) and chanted The Lord’s Holy Names. His hands were showing the mudras (mystical gestures). The great Mada then absorbed his consciousness in the most ultimate teachings. He left his physical mundane body dissolved in its natural substances. His True Self then ascended to the most glorious abode of Lord Narayana. Thus our great leader has left this mundane world and never seen anymore.”

When the kingdom of Bali been subdued by Bilvatikta’s power under Gajamada’s command, a certain nobility called Sri Krishna was appointed by the Queen of Bilvatikta* to act as her representative in Bali. He was a descendant of Kadiri nobilities and Brahmin by caste. Sri Krishna ordained as a ruler of Bali in the name of Bilvatikta, and named Sri Krishna Kepakisan. Kepakisan means a nail, he was a “nailing force”, a pivot, to prevent Bali fall into chaotic condition after Bilvatikta’s invasion. But unfortunately, rebel movements were growing everywhere. In desperate heart Sri Krishna Kepakisan came back to Java and prepared to ask Queen’s permission to let him put his office. But Gajamada approached him and said, “Aywa cili atulaka… yan cili atulak dede i ngong Hariwangsa… Please don’t come back my son. You shouldn’t give up. Otherwise you were not a part of Hariwangsa. The Lord’s family has to done his duty and took his responsibilities.” Then it was said, the Gajamada gave him a kriss (bladelike traditional weapon), a replica of Lord Vishnu’s divine conch (it could be a rare Laksmi-sankha), and some Vaishnavite secret teachings to give him boldness, self confidence, and bring peace to Bali. (sing anaka ganja dungkul sungu si pancajanya bhusana aji kajanardanan, “I shall give you supplies my son, the divine pancajanya conch and ‘attire’ (bhusana) of the secret teaching of Lord Janardana, aji kajanardanan”).

(*At that time the lord of Bilvatikta was a queen, Sri Maharani Tribhuvana Vijayottungadevi, considered as an amsha (partial manifestation) of Mahalaksmi, the divine consort of Lord Vishnu. She was the Throne-holder after the death of her step brother king Jayanagara in one rebellion against the throne. Gajamada served both the Queen and also her son Sri Maharaja Rajasanagara or Hayam Wuruk or Bhre Hyang Wekasing Suksma. Gajamada began his political carrier as the captain of Bhayangkaras, exclusive troop of the Throne-holder and Royal Heir protectors. He was promoted after his success in guarding the Royal Heir from rebellion of Kuti, one of Dharmaputras, a troop supposed to guard the inner part of the palace, organized and controlled by rebellious minister Pati. But Kuti betrayed even his own master and want to take the throne for himself. Jayanagara the present king at that time and step brother of the next queen was murdered cleverly by the royal physician, Tancha, in so called medical operation of his tumor. Gajamada finally was again promoted as Prime Minister, the first highest office directly under the king, by the retired Prime Minister before him. This is because his great merit to the Kingdom by destroyed the powerful Sadeng rebellion. In case of Sri Maharani herself, she was the oldest daughter of Rajapatni Sri Gayatridevi. Sri Gayatridevi was not a prime queen of His Majesty the late king Kritarajasa Jayavardhana, the founder of Bilvatikta. The prime queen was Sri Tribhuvanadevi, the mother of Jayanagara. But Rajapatni Gayatridevi was famous as a very wise lady. She has spiritual competence in many sastric teachings and mystic practices (sadhanas). By the Javanese Buddhist at that time she was glorified as an emanation of Buddha Prajnaparamita and the Hindus honored her as an amsha of Bharatidevi or Sarasvati, the goddess of learning. Before Gajamada and his kings tried to spread Bilvatikta’s influence by politic and power, Rajapatni Gayatridevi was believed as the first lady who promoted the distribution of Bilvatikta’s knowledge and sacred wisdom, especially to Bali. That’s why the Balinese put her Puspa-samadhi in their mother temple of Besakih. Although Besakih actually was a symbol of Bali’s independency and this temple give the Balinese confidence, that they has no less position than Javanese nobility until this very day. But they take Rajapatni Gayatri in such a high regard, as the representative of the revered Hindu goddess of learning, Sri Sarasvatidevi herself. This could explain to us, verily knowledge is the true power in the world. (I shall describe how the protocol of worship in Besakih actually didn’t accept Javanese hegemony either politically or spiritually in other post).

When Lord Jagannathdeva worshiped as Lord Adi-Buddha, His Consorts...

Neela Sarasvati become Prajnaparamita

... and Sri Devi become Bhagavati Arya Tara

Sunday, June 28, 2009

Invocations in The Treatise of Leadership and Morality

In Kawi literature, we also have a book called Niti Sastra, the book of leadership. We have no historical proves about its real compiler. In India, the same Niti Sastra was authored by Chanakya, a Brahmins with extraordinary political knowledge. It was him, who took the power of Nanda Dynasty by intelligent tactic and enthroned the Mauryas. And he was the same person prophesied 5000 years ago by Lord Vedavyasa as a certain Brahmana who will put to end the reign of the Nandas. But the Javanese Niti Sastra was silent about its authorship though it was seem base on Indian-Sanskrit Niti Sastra of Chanakya. Some persons believe the book was translated by Dvijendra, the greatest Saivite high priest of Majapahit who came to Bali after the fall of the said Empire.

Niti Sastra was a book of leadership. But actually it wasn’t about political leadership. It was “personal leadership”, how to shape our own personality to become morally cultured human. The Javanese Niti Sastra manuscript begin with these prayers,

The Shining Lord. As brilliant as thousands suns

Sembahninghulun ing bhatara Hari
sarwajnatmabhuh nityasa

Sang tanseng hridayanta tikta

tulisengke supratisthe namer

Ring wahyastuti sembahinghulun

i jong sang hyang sahasrangsuman

Dadya prakrita niti sastra

hiniket lambing winakteng praja

“I am worshiping the essence of omniscience eternity The Supreme Lord Hari. Externally I offered my obeisance to The Lord Who Shining with Thousands Rays (the Sun). I will write this work by bind Him first, tightly in the core of my heart. Thus a work called Niti Sastra was manifested, for distribute the knowledge to the people.”

Suryadeva, the sun god on his chariot

Awighnam astu.
Nihan ri telasning slokakatha wahyanya,
Sang Hyang Sarasamuscaya Niti Sara Sanghita.

Sembahninghulun ring Sri Bhatara Hari,
sira kang wisesa ring sarwa loka.
Iswaraning sarwa dewa,

ndoninghulun semembahing sira.

Mangajarakena ikang Niti Sara,

kajaran ikang sarwa sastra.

Rengawakena tikeng wuwus mami
kamung sisyaka
sarwa dharma juga winuwuska.

Uwus pwa kita rumenge
alapen pwekang taya.

Makaphala panutang atma mareng hayu.
Ndatan hana juga kahyunya mwah.
“May there be no obstacle! This is the conclusion of the book of Sarasamuscaya, the essence of all teachings on morality. I offered my obeisance unto the Supreme Lord Hari, the Master of all worlds. God of all gods, thus I worshipped You. Now I shall describe this Niti Sastra, as taught by all scriptures. After you heard these from me O my dear disciples, may you also practicing them. May you could take the essence of all my teachings. These you should follow personally for your welfare. Never change your minds from these ideals.”

Here we also found a certain book called Sarasamuscaya was mentioned by the author. This is a very famous book for Balinese Hindus. A certain sage called Vararuci (Katyayana?) compiled the Sanskrit version as a resume of the teachings of moralities in Lord Vedavyasa’s Mahabharata. Its Kawi version considered as an authorized work on Indonesian Hindus’ moralistic values.

Friday, June 26, 2009

The Legendary Vaishnava King Jayabhaya

Thus Sri Jayabhaya was one of the greatest patrons of Vaishnavism in Java and Nusantara. Even today we still find glorifying stories about him in Javanese oral tradition. He was such a legendary personality. One day I found an interesting story about him in a classical Javanese manuscript named Serat Dharmogandhul. This is rather controversial work in the form of prose of ordinary modern Javanese language (not in archaic Kawi). The central theme actually described the process of Javanese Islamization by very dishonest way. By its recent appearance we can’t take it seriously as a historical proves. But still we can considered this book as a representative of Javanese living oral tradition or at least as shouting sound from the core of one Javanese’s heart. Several years ago the publication of the book was banned by Indonesian Government, in fear of religious clash. But after we entering the so called reformation era, and the free distribution of all things by internet (thanks to the IT), this book was appeared again (at least in the form of softcopy files).

This is Petilasan Sri Jayabhaya, where he disappeared with his consort to ascend to the Divine Abode of Lord Vishnu. Some Javanese still offering their obeisance and burn incenses at the spot.

It was said Sri Jayabhaya, the beloved of Lord Vishnu, with his consort Taradevi disappeared with their divinized body and go back to the Supreme Abode of Lord Vishnu. He has two senapati (commanders in chief), called Kyayi Daha and Kyayi Daka. Both have mystical siddhis to change their bodies into subtle substances. By their siddhis, they also could stay alive as long as they want (kayavyuham-sargakartrtvasilpa-siddhi). Sri Jayabhaya’s daughter called by the Javanese as Nyi Ratu Pagedhongan (The Queen of Inner Chamber) also attained same Tantrika-siddhis and mystical yogic powers. After departure of their master, the two senapati entered invisible realm. And so did the princess. Although have the powerful siddhis, but they couldn’t follow their master to the highest destination. So the three persons, a princess and two warriors decided to use their mystic prowess for protecting Java and Nusantara, the land of their master.

Mount Kelud, an active volcano in East Java. Believed as the palace of Kyayi Tunggulwulung, its guardian.

Kyayi Daha became famous as Kyayi Bhuta-locaya (The Trustworthy Being). He subdued all negative powers and malign spirits in Sri Jayabhaya’s capital. He put all Bhutas, ghostly beings, under his control and became their king. He built his palace in Selabale (Platform of Stone), an invisible subtle realm in a gigantic slab of stone inside a cave, at northwest of Kili Suci Temple. Kyayi Daka became Kyayi Tunggulwulung (The Column-like Pivot). He also put all Bhutas under his control to help him protect the area of Kelud. Kelud is a still active volcano and has erupted several times. Kyayi Tunggulwulung protect the village of the people who still loyal to their ancient faith and their king, Sri Jayabhaya. He has power to redirect the lava so these people may save. Nyi Mas Ratu Pagedhongan became Nyi Mas Ratu Anginangin (The Revered Queen of The Subtle Invisible Realm; Angin means wind, air, or invisibility) and built her invisible kingdom in the depth of Southern Sea of Java. She subdued all Bhutas of the whole Java and put them under her control. It was believed that the mystic Queen should be propitiated by anyone who wants to take the throne of Java, or in other word the whole Nusantara or Indonesia. She was also famous as Kangjeng Ratu Kidul (The Revered Queen of Southern Region)

The Queen (in an artist's drawing) and the Javanese who traditionally go to Southern Sea to bring offerings for the Guardian of Nusantara's Subtle Realm

Every Javanese kings always built their relationship mystically with this master of all Bhutas. If she didn’t give her agreement to the present leader, then the whole Bhutas of Indonesia will creating continuous disasters and making so much problem in peoples’ mind (because they were subtle beings, so they influence our subtle bodies, not directly or physically). Without any hesitation they would make “unworthy peoples” vanished from their beloved land (Remember, the Bhutas have more attachment to their belongings and areas than mundane human. They were also very fierce, wrathful, jealous creatures and full of anger). Their dissatisfaction will take the various forms such as natural disasters, epidemics, accidents and even influence peoples’ mind to become insane and kill each other. Only if the people make their self, worthy enough to lives in Nusantara, thus by not abandoning their own spiritual culture and their ancestors, the Devas and Bhutas will give them peace. Otherwise they should have rightful kings or national leaders who still remember their cultural heritages, honor the glories of Sri Jayabhaya, and have been blessed by his heir, The Queen of Indonesia’s Subtle Realm. Only such a leader could prevent these happenings and protect their people from the Bhutas’ anger. (The pious country will be protected by the Devas (gods) and Pitris (ancestral spirits) from any danger caused by the ever angry Bhutas. Even we could make peace with the Bhutas by offered some favor to them. But if the peoples and the leaders considered “unworthy”, then The Devas and Pitris will abandon them and let all the Bhutas pour their anger and negative vibrations on them)

The sacred dance Bedhaya Semang of Yogyakarta and its similar form Bedhaya Kethawang of Surakarta were enacted this mystic connection between mundane Kingship and invisible realm authority. The dance itself was a ritualistic performance and there is a scene when the dancer circumambulate the Throne in pradakshinam as in Hindu-Vedic or Buddhist traditions

The tradition of continuing this mystic relationship was still living in two most influential Javanese Kingship of Yogyakarta and Surakarta. They can’t abandon this centuries old Javanese tradition, though externally they have embraced Islam. The late president Soekarno, the founding father of Republic of Indonesia, was believed to take this tradition also. We have no historical evidence about such mystical supernatural occurrences. This all based on oral tradition and traditional beliefs of the people. How much truth and accuracy these beliefs have, let we just see in reality. But for myself, personally, I have to believe it. Once again, this is not about right or wrong, real or unreal. This is about my cultural identity, the pride of our country and civilization, and our love to Hindu-Vedic heritages of our honorable ancestors. The Vedic tenets taught us to not abandon any living entities, even if they were demonic or ghostly in nature. As one who take shelter in Vaishnavite Sampradaya and surrender exclusively under our Acharya Parampara and The Supreme Personality of Godhead Sri Krishna, we have to thank these beings for let us perform our sadhana in their beloved land.

Wednesday, June 24, 2009

The Invocations from Harivansha-parva

mPu Panuluh also compiled Harivansha-carita in Kawi. This is the story of amazing pastimes of Lord Krishna’s marriage with Rukminidevi. mPu Panuluh wrote this work began with invocation to Lord Krishna.

Lord Krishna 'kidnapped' Rukminidevi

Ngkane sringga nikang wukir nghulun amuja mrih madewasraya Dhyayi prapta bhatara wishnu hinidep munggweng sekar pankaja Siddhaning kalangon prayojananing anggong dhyana wishnawarcana Manggalya ning awetwa bhasita maran manggeh sinenggah kawi
“On the top of this mountain I was performed worship and surrendered myself. Meditated on the Divine Form of Lord Vishnu, enthroned on a lotus flower (the heart). May I could compile this beautiful, charming poems so the meditation on Lord Vishnu will attained success. I was invoked all auspiciousness at the beginning of this work glorifying Lord Vishnu, so I could be counted among poets without shame.”

Panuluh's humble mood remembered me with Sri Surdas Ji

These simple tools were able to revealed the supreme beauty to the world...

... since Lord Hari Himself, on the lotus throne, inspired him from within...

Ndatan lena katharajakena nghing kastawan hyang hari Rumrumen gelaren wilapa kekawin munggwing lepit ning karas Ndan duran kawasamalar nghulun apan sinwi kinon de haji Sri Dharmeswara digjayan jayabhayan jati wishnwatmaka
”The story that I’m going to tell you was no other than the glorious pastimes of Lord Hari. Since it was so amazingly wonderful, then I wrote it on the pieces of bark. As I was a dumb and ignorance person, I have no qualification to accomplish this difficult task. But Sri Dharmesvara, the lord of law and justice. Victorious in the four cardinals. Sri Jayabhaya told me to take this duty; I accepted it as Lord Vishnu’s own will and order.”

Tan sangke wihikan mara nghulun apan manggeh kaciryan tiwas Puspanjalya ri jong janardana juga nghing don iki tan waneh Hetunnya harivanshaparva wangunen tuten lalangwakena Cihna ning winuruk wuruk tekap ira sri lung lango ring lango
”Don’t you ever think I compiled these poems out of my brilliant intelligent. Indeed, I was a dull headed person. This wonderful pastime of Harivanshaparva in reality was perfectly beautiful. But if my compilation didn’t show its full glory, it was a sign that I was still learning how to write. Actually there was one, whom I was considered as my preceptor. One, whose ability to make the most beautiful among all beauties was world famous. I hope my work accepted as a humble flower offering unto the Divine Lotus Feet of Lord Janardana.”

Flower offerings to His Lotus Feet

Sunday, June 21, 2009

King Jayabhaya’s Role in Vaishnavism

The second important rise of Vaishnavism in Nusantara was under the patronage of the great king Jayabhaya (Maharaja Sri Varmesvara Jayabhaya Madhusudana-avatara-anindita Sri Singhaparakramottungadeva). Sri Jayabhaya unified the divided kingdom by subdued his own relatives of Jangala. This happened to shocked him greatly, similar with the Ashokavardhana after the war of Kalinga. Sri Jayabhaya devoted himself to the most advanced Vaishnavite practices, while also protecting his kingdom. Although a king involved mostly in mundane business, Sri Jayabhaya famous for his accomplishment in spiritual life and the Javanese believed he has trikalajna-shakti, the power to know the past, present, and future. The prophecies of Jayabhaya were very famous in legendary tales and oral tradition of Java. But we have no original version of the prophecies, may be because it was continued to next generation orally. Some Javanese still believed in them and called them Jangka Jayabhaya. Sri Jayabhaya was believed to say something such as, “Besuk yen wis ana kreta tanpa jaran. One day there will be a cart without a horse. Tanah Jawa kalungan wesi. The island of Java will wear a necklace of iron (railway). Prahu mlaku ing dhuwur awang-awang. There will be a boat flying in the sky.”

Historically, Sri Jayabhaya patronized sacred literary works and promoted Vaishnavism by glorified Lord Krishna. mPu Sedah (The Elder) and mPu Panuluh (The Illuminator) were two Brahmins who compiled the Javanese Bharatayuddha-carita, focused on the great war of Bharata in Kuruksetra. mPu Sedah called such, may be because he was the first translator and royal poet, but couldn’t finish his work on Bharatayuddha. The mPu Panuluh then continued his work and finally could illumine the people with the shining wisdom of Vyasadeva, contained in Javanese Bharatayuddha.

Among great armies of the two families and great world-war, battle till the end...

The Supreme Lord revealed the most confidential teachings of the Gita

This work ended with the divine departure of Lord Krishna and the beginning of Kaliyuga. mPu Panuluh further said that after The Lord returned to His Divine Abode, He send His shakti (energy) to Java and empowered Sri Jayabhaya to reformed chaotic kingdom and established peace in Java. Thus Sri Jayabhaya as a Vaishnava, as a noble king, and empowered representative of The Lord Himself, was considered as an amsha (partial descent) of Lord Vishnu. This sastra remind us with Sri Jayabhaya’s own dilemma, when he has to made war with his own relatives for unity of the country. Some scholars took this project as an effort of purification (prayascittam) to atone the king’s “sin” in the battle with his own relatives of Jangala.

But the battle has to go on till the end of the whole armies

Friday, June 19, 2009

The Glory of Vaishnavism in the Reign of Airlangga

Airlangga, as the legal heir of his father in law, persuaded by Narottama and other loyal nobilities as well as his people, then tried to occupy his throne and reclaimed the sovereign authority over all Javanese kingdoms. At the same time Srivijaya was attacked by the South Indian Chola king. Their main harbour in Malacca was fall under Chola’s power and even the centre of Srivijaya’s controlling royal order was subdued. Though after this attack Srivijaya never cease to exist, but she never got her full glory back. Srivijaya was no longer the sole sovereign power in South East Asia and her maritime forces dwindled. Thus Airlangga was attained all success to re-emerge the power of Javanese kingdoms.

The reign of Airlangga was a glorious time of Vaishnavism in Nusantara. For the first time after the great kings of Sanjayavansha, finally Java has another Maharaja or King of all kings. Airlangga unified the whole Java under his sovereign power and anointed by Barada Rishi, his own Acharya and other Brahmins of all sects as Sri Maharaja Raka i Halu Sri Lokesvara Dharmavansha Airlangga Anantavikramottungadevaraja. Airlangga himself was initiated into Vishnu-mantra and Vaishnava practices. The seal of his kingdom was Garuda, the throne and vehicle of Lord Vishnu. This Garuda-lanchana continued as the official seal of all kings after him, regardless their own personal beliefs. Until this very day, Garuda remain as the emblem of Republic of Indonesia.

Garuda, Official Emblem of The Republic of Indonesia

Airlangga didn’t have a crown-prince. The next legal Royal Heir, Sri Sangramavijayadevi, was a princess who declined to accept Queen-ship. She preferred a life of Vaishnavi ascetic. She went to one cave in the mountainous area of Kadiri (East Java, not the same named place in South India) called Selamanglen. There she lived as a Vaishnavi Vairagini, performed solitary bhajana (meditative worship) and attained the highest perfection. She was vanished with her divinized physical body at that very hermitage. Until now the Javanese called her Devi Kili Suci, “The Holy Princess who did penance”. Kili was a Javanese term for female hermit.

The cave or hermitage of the Crown-Princess. She was attaining perfection and disappeared at this place.

A temple now has been built by the local Hindus with government permission in the land nearby (considered as an archeologically important place), to honored the Holy Princess

Procession led by Javanese Hindu priests with the sound of their ghantas (ritual bells) in the consecration of the said temple

Without this crown-princess, Airlangga found himself in a dilemma. Now the next legal heirs were the two Yuvarajas, two princes. It was impossible to just give the throne to one of them. The two has the same right to be enthroned king. Once again, Barada was sent to Bali, for asked Airlangga’s younger brother Sri Marakata to come to Java and take the throne. But this proposal was refused both by Marakata himself and his revered Rajaguru, Rishi Kuturan, brother of Barada. Marakata has already considered himself as Lord Bharata, who took the throne of Bali only as his brother’s representative. As Bharata worship the sandals (padukas) of Lord Rama and put them on the throne, Marakata also did the same by worshiped a pairs of stone padukas as representation of his brother (now we can see this pairs of stone sandals in Durga’s shrine of Burwan Hill). If Marakata has to take the throne of Java, then Bali verily will be kingless. The only way for their youngest brother to occupy the Bali’s throne was only the death of his brother Marakata or if Marakata accept the ascetic life. Both solutions were impossible and if this proposal was accepted then will be a great chaos in Bali and the continuation of the Varmadevas’ rule will be put in endangered state.

After long deliberation, Airlangga then pain heartedly divided his Kingdom for the two crown-princes. Barada Rishi took the task by created a big river by his mystic power from the water sprouting from his pitcher as described by Prapancha. Thus the great kingdom became two, Jangala and Panjalu. After enthroned his two sons, Airlangga himself took the life of ascetic. He was ordained as a hermit by Barada and named Rishi Ghantayu. In the inscription he was designated as mPungku Pinaka Chatraning Bhuwana. mPungku was name for the highest priestly order in ancient Java. Chatra means parasol or umbrella, thus indicated his protection to the world (bhuwana). So he was named The Lord of Ascetics Patron Saint of The World. He also accomplished in his Vaishnava-sadhana and vanished with his divinized body.

Dhyana Vishnu Deity of Airlangga

His memorial Samadhi was located in Belahan, a holy tirtham (natural water spring). To respecting this great king, his descendant built a shrine of Lord Vishnu. Airlangga as a Dharmaraja (great king who ruled according to sacred universal law) was considered as Lord Vishnu’s own manifestation. It was said that the face of Lord Vishnu’s deity was depicted in similarity with Airlangga’s face. This Vishnu deity was indeed very rare. The Four Armed Lord depicted in dhyana-mudra, gesture of meditation, and His two upper hands hold sankha (conch) and chakra (disc) the common insignia of Lord Vishnu. He rides on “right facing” Garuda (same as the official symbol, emblem of Republic of Indonesia) with Sri and Bhu Devi in His sides. Fortunately, we still have this precious deity in not so bad condition, but the deities of Sri and Bhu were worse. Indeed, these Deities of The Lord's Consorts were very unique. The Sanctum itself was a pool or kundam and the sacred water sprouts from Bhu Devi's breast like a stream of milk. This water are also giving life to many villages and fields until this very day. The water was so pure, we could drink it directly from the Goddess' breast.

The sanctum of already damaged Vishnu Temple

Direct "breast-feeding" from the Goddess of Earth. (thanks for your pics)

Wednesday, June 17, 2009

Prayers to Lord Krishna in Bhaumantaka-carita of Barada

Bhaumasura in Kathakali performance

Although we did not have any historical evidence, but the Balinese elders believed Barada Rishi was compiled a Javanese Bhaumantaka-carita. This is also a rare palm leaf manuscript and not so widely read by people as The Yogisvara Ramayana and The Parvas. Bhaumantaka was about the death of Bhaumasura (or Narakasura) but described more elaborately than the same story we found in Bhagavata. Many unknown scenes were told in this work such as the defeat of Arjuna in his battle with Bhaumasura.

Bhaumantaka became interesting literary work for me when I found the prayer of Brahma and other Devas and Rishis to Lord Krishna, after The Lord killed Bhaumasura.

Hyang Brahma sira sighra dhateng
anembaha rarem i Bhatara Kesava.

Bhaktyangastuti ling niran,
Prabhu wisesa kita wasawasitwang bhupati.

Utpati sthiti linaning bhuwana
karana nika kita dadi dewata.

Bhokteng bhogya kitatma suddha
purusottama kita paramartha kewala.

”Lord Brahma came quickly to Lord Kesava’s presence and worships Him. With prayers full of devotion he said, My Lord You are the omnipotent, The Lord whose will never be unfulfilled. You are The Supreme God, the very cause of creation, maintenance, and destruction of the whole cosmic manifestation. The pure blemish-less Supreme Personality. Your very Self was bliss and pleasure personified. There is no other higher destination or goal other than You!”

Yan ring sandhi katattwaning pranawa
dewa kita maka sarirang aksara.

Litning sutra subaddha bandhana binandha
kita paramatattwa durlabha.

Yan ring jyotishatantra tan hana waneh

kita sipati katemwaning pinet.

Sangksepanya wisesa ri tiga

bhatara parama siwa nisti dewata.

“You are the most secret truth of syllable OM (pranava) among all alphabet. You are the thread, the resting place of all beings. The tightest unbreakable rope. The Supreme Absolute Truth uneasily reached. You are the only One who propitiated by all Jyotishas and Tantras to attain their perfection. Conclusively, among these Three Divine Features, certainly You are the Paramasiva.” (Jyotishas are astrological knowledge, consulted for decide good or bad time to perform any activity by mastering the path and movement of star, planet, etc. Tantras are the knowledge of skillful means to attain the goal. Both Jyotishas and Tantras help us to manifest our aspiration. But that was Lord Krishna who sanctioned everything. Without His permission nothing could be gain although we take the injunction of Jyotishas and Tantras very strictly. And with His mere will alone, all success came even without following the Jyotishas and Tantras. The term ri tiga bhatara ~ among Three Divine Manifestation as found in Saiva-agama and the theological concept of the Saiva i.e. Siva or Sivatma, Sadasiva or Isvara, and Paramasiva or Parabrahman, conclusively proclaimed that Lord Krishna is the same Paramasiva of the Saivites or Paravasudeva of Vaishnavas).

Nyang loka hyuni tattwaning hyang
ingapan wruha ri gati bhatara yang wibhuh.

Prajna yan pamasang samahita
tathapi wisayanika
tan teke kita
Sang Yogiswara towi tan wenang
atarka ri kita umeneng kurang idep

Puja dhyana Samadhi dharma

pitutur pinalimura ring kapanditan

“The lords of worlds (devas) eager to know the truth about You, but they can’t reach Your glorious prowess. Because You are the knowledge and wisdom Himself, so they approached You only by worship. The masters of yogis have no qualification to know You, so they remain in solitary silent. By following the Eternal Law, they took the way of priesthood or penance and performed worship (puja), meditation (dhyana), and unified their consciousness only with You (samadhi).”

After these prayers offered by Lord Brahma, all Prajapatis, Devas, headed by Indra on his elephant vehicle the Airavata, twelve sons of Aditi headed by the Sun God Surya on his chariot, Kuvera the celestial treasurer on his air plane palanquin (vimana) with all his Yakshas and Yamaraja, the lord of death came on his buffalo carrier and holding his Danda (staff of justice) to worship The Supreme Lord Krishna. Then Mahesvara or Siva, famous as Pretaraja, the lord of ghostly beings, also came with his families such as his consort Uma and his son Lord Sena and Lord Ganapati, and many followers such as the Bhutas, Ganas, and Pramathas (kinds of malign supernatural beings). They glorified Lord Hari with thunderous voices and showered the rain of flower and other fragrances.

Supreme Lord of all lords worships by Devas, Rishis, Siddhas, and Humans

The Great Lord then said to all of them,
Nahan lingira,
he Virinchi kita masiheng rat kabeh
Watek hyang iki raksanen

ta nguniweh tika sang rishi

Apan kita bapebuning sakala loka kita

Matangnya hayuning jagat

jagaya tan ya tan linggara.

”Thus The Great Lord said, O my dear Virinchi (Brahma), you are affectionately always protecting the whole creation. So let you continued to protect the gods and the sages as before. Since you are considered as the father and also mother of all universes. Because of your sacrifice the whole world wouldn’t fall to disorder and always in peace.”

Telas mara ilang si Bhauma ya kalengkaning rat kabeh Tewek nika kahawyaning bhuwana dengku tanpopama Kitekana nimittaning tehera tang jagat saswata Marapwaniki tusta sang rishi lawan watek dewata
“The disaster of universe, Bhauma, just already destroyed. By My blessing the indescribable peace has prevailed everywhere. Now it is your turn to keep this condition forever, so the sages and gods could live peacefully ever after.”

Sadrewya nikanang watek hyang
inalap nikang Bhumija
Yateka muliheka dengku

meneher tut karma

Kitatikana ngengeta
apan mapiwika
nikanghyuni drewya len
“Anything took by force from the gods by this Bhumija (Bhaumasura) has been under My protection. Now I gave them to you. Let you returned them to all devas according to the lawful means. That was not honourable act and very degraded to take what not belong to us.”

Nahan wuwusinghulun
ri sira watek hyang kabeh
Kitatika nimittaning sakala
warna tan sangkara
Teher kita matuta nitya
tusta tang
bhuwana loka bhakti kita
”Thus I spoke to you, O all gods. It was known to everyone, that Lord Brahma was the very creator of this material world. Please never cease to perform your Puja, so everyone in this universe will happily worship you with devotion.”

Wuwusku depenta
ta kita pramadeng ayu
Yananya kita pagwanapageha

ring kadewabratan

Tumema phalaning kasiddhyana

teher musuh tan hana

Nghulun muwahajanma

manusa rikang jagat raksana

“Please remember my message, never abandoned your duty to universal welfare. If all of you performed your duty honestly, by austerities all success will be attained, and there is no more endangering enemy. But whenever the world needs Me, I certainly will descend in My Human Form, and give you protection.”

Sunday, June 14, 2009

Mystery of mPu Barada Spirituality

Undoubtedly, the great mPu Barada was once an accomplished siddha and spiritual preceptor of highest order in his time. Even today the Balinese and Javanese Hindus, some traditional Javanese spiritual practitioners (the Kejawens) still offer him such a high respect and invoke his blessings. But we also found the native Mahayana-Tantric Buddhists of Indonesia also eulogize him as their preceptor. Prapancha, one of Bivatikta's Buddhist pontiff (Dharmadhyaksa ri Kasugatan), was glorifying him in his Chronicle, The Nagarakritagama. So what kind of religious practices did Barada take? It is mysterious. His brother mPu Kuturan or Rajakritha's spiritual practices was easier to identified. It was certainly the cult of Tri Natha worship of Kalinga origin and with inclination to Vaishnavism (not Saivism such as people commonly believed. Highly Saivite influenced Balinese Hinduism was growing since Singhasari - Bilvatikta's era)

You may take my opinion or not, but this is what I felt about this great personage. He was one who realized Kalinga (ancient Orissa) origin Vajrayana siddhantas (theologic conclusions) and worshipper of Lord Jagannathdeva. In one sense, Lord Jagannathdeva is The Supreme Deity of Vaishnavas, The Paravasudeva, who emenates as Three Divine Forms and further became the source of The Tri Nathas (Brahma, Vishnu, Siva). This tenets established by mPu Kuturan in Bali, and long before him by the Kings and Sages of Central Java Sanjaya Dynasty. But in the same time Lord Jagannathdeva was also worshiped by the Tantrayanic or Mantrayanic or Vajrayanic Buddhist as Adi Buddha or The Original Buddha, as we found in Indrabhuti's Book of Jnanasiddhi. (Indrabhuti of Orissa himself was considered as the propagator of Vajrayana Buddhism and his sister Siddha Yogini Laksminkara was the preceptor of Sahajayana).

The temple of Mendut, Central Java. The temple dedicated to Adi Buddha Mahavairochana

From this complex spiritual practices and beliefs we have the cult of Mahavairochana as the Adi Buddha. The cult of Mahavairochana reached Indonesia, China, Korea, and Japan by King Subhakarasingha's effort of Orissa. The Supreme Buddha Jagannathdeva of Indrabhuti took His new shape as Lord Mahavairochana Buddha of Mahavairochana Sutra. The most important sacred and confidential teachings of Mahavairochana cult were the meditational Mandala of Vajradhatu and Mahakarunagarbhodbhava, and also the treatise of iconography called Sarvatathagatasara-samgraha. In Indonesia the Vajradhatu-mandala was the world famous Borobudur temple (Bhumisambharabuddhara) and Lord Mahavairochana offered worships at Mendut temple, the Mahavairochana-mandala. Lord Mahavairochana Buddha accompanied by Bodhisattva Padmapani Lokeshvara and Vajrapani were the source of Tri Nathas as explained in The Book of Tutur Sang Hyang Kamahayanikan Mantrayana. Now we got the same conclusion both for the Buddhism (Dharma Kasugatan) and Vaishnavism (Dharma Kabhujanggan).

(left to right) Padmapani Lokeshvara, Adi Buddha Mahavairochana, and Vajrapani of Mendut Temple

Now let we considered another fact. For years common peoples and archaeologist speculated about what is actually contained in the biggest Stupa of Borobudur. Was it empty from the beginning? Was it contained very valuable golden Buddha statue inlaid with precious stones and has been stolen? Or what...?

The Vajradhatu Mandala of Borobudur. What was contained in the central, biggest Stupa?

In a classic Javanese literary work of called Serat Centhini, quoted by Pandji Winoto, we found these passages.Pupuh (Song) 105, pages 59-60, 2nd Book, verse 8-9

Verse 8
Umiyat kurungan sela, tinarancang alus remit, nglebete kurungansela, isi rece geng satunggil, nanging panggarapneki, kinten-kinten dereng rampung, saranduning sarira, katha kang dereng cinawi, kang samya myat langkung eram ing werdaya"
Look a cage of stone, so smooth and elaborately made. Inside it there is a single Deity, so great and gigantic in size. But it looked not already finished. So much unsculpted part on its body. Who ever saw it will feel amaze in his heart!

Verse 9
Mas Cobolang angandiko, Para durunane iki, reca agung tur neng puncak, teka tan lengkep ing warni, yen pancen durung dadi, iku banget mokalipun, baya pancen jinarag, embuh karepe kang kardi,mara padha udakarenen ing driya.”
Mas Cebolang (narrator) said: How could it be? Such a big Deity, placed on the topmost throne, but looked imperfect and unfinished. This is impossible (they were not able to finished it yet before put it in its place). What did they (the maker) think? Did they make it purposefully? Let us contemplate it in our heart.

The Prime Statue of The Supreme Adi Buddha Mahavairochana in the center of this three dimensional Mandala Vajradhatu was in the form of unfinished and imperfect sculpture. The Primordial One and The Ultimate Perfection Himself is in the form of imperfection. The scholar and archeologist DR. Stutterheim also has already estimated this fact. So, this have the same concept with the Divine Form of Lord Jagannathdeva in Puri, Orissa. We saw Him, physically, as imperfect and unfinished Deity.

Sri Jagannathdeva is Lord Paravasudeva
Bhagavan Krishna for the Vaishnavas,
The Supreme Absolute Truth,
The Ultimate Perfection,
The Source of Everything,
but seem as an imperfect, weird Deity

Mahavairochana emenating other Buddhas and Bodhisattvas

Sri Sri Radha Krishna in Milana as Rasaraja Mahabhava
The Supreme Enjoyer and The Ultimate Bliss

Buddha in Milana or Yab Yum position with His Energy, symbolized The Ultimate Bliss

Now I hope the mystery of Bhatara Hyang Rishi Barada has already solved ....

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