In Kawi literature, we also have a book called Niti Sastra, the book of leadership. We have no historical proves about its real compiler. In India, the same Niti Sastra was authored by Chanakya, a Brahmins with extraordinary political knowledge. It was him, who took the power of Nanda Dynasty by intelligent tactic and enthroned the Mauryas. And he was the same person prophesied 5000 years ago by Lord Vedavyasa as a certain Brahmana who will put to end the reign of the Nandas. But the Javanese Niti Sastra was silent about its authorship though it was seem base on Indian-Sanskrit Niti Sastra of Chanakya. Some persons believe the book was translated by Dvijendra, the greatest Saivite high priest of Majapahit who came to Bali after the fall of the said Empire.
Niti Sastra was a book of leadership. But actually it wasn’t about political leadership. It was “personal leadership”, how to shape our own personality to become morally cultured human. The Javanese Niti Sastra manuscript begin with these prayers,
Sembahninghulun ing bhatara Hari
Sang tanseng hridayanta tikta
tulisengke supratisthe namer
Ring wahyastuti sembahinghulun
i jong sang hyang sahasrangsuman
Dadya prakrita niti sastra
hiniket lambing winakteng praja
“I am worshiping the essence of omniscience eternity The Supreme Lord Hari. Externally I offered my obeisance to The Lord Who Shining with Thousands Rays (the Sun). I will write this work by bind Him first, tightly in the core of my heart. Thus a work called Niti Sastra was manifested, for distribute the knowledge to the people.”
Nihan ri telasning slokakatha wahyanya,
Sang Hyang Sarasamuscaya Niti Sara Sanghita.
Sembahninghulun ring Sri Bhatara Hari,
sira kang wisesa ring sarwa loka.
Iswaraning sarwa dewa,
ndoninghulun semembahing sira.
Mangajarakena ikang Niti Sara,
kajaran ikang sarwa sastra.
Rengawakena tikeng wuwus mami
kamung sisyaka dadi
sarwa dharma juga winuwuska.
Uwus pwa kita rumenge
alapen pwekang taya.
Makaphala panutang atma mareng hayu.
Ndatan hana juga kahyunya mwah.
“May there be no obstacle! This is the conclusion of the book of Sarasamuscaya, the essence of all teachings on morality. I offered my obeisance unto the Supreme Lord Hari, the Master of all worlds. God of all gods, thus I worshipped You. Now I shall describe this Niti Sastra, as taught by all scriptures. After you heard these from me O my dear disciples, may you also practicing them. May you could take the essence of all my teachings. These you should follow personally for your welfare. Never change your minds from these ideals.”
Here we also found a certain book called Sarasamuscaya was mentioned by the author. This is a very famous book for Balinese Hindus. A certain sage called Vararuci (Katyayana?) compiled the Sanskrit version as a resume of the teachings of moralities in Lord Vedavyasa’s Mahabharata. Its Kawi version considered as an authorized work on Indonesian Hindus’ moralistic values.
Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya: Chapter 14: Part 3
2 weeks ago